On September 4, the Church celebrates the memory of Moses who gave the law. A central figure in the Old Testament, Moses is also mentioned many times in the New Testament.

Moses, who was born to the people of Israel in the days of slavery in Egypt, grew up as an Egyptian prince in Pharaoh's court, worked as a Midianite shepherd at the time of his call by God, led the people of Israel to freedom until they reached the borders of the Land of Israel, is a central figure in God's story with his people in the first part of Christian Scripture (which parallels the Jewish TaNaKh). Although Moses did not enter the Land, his figure represents both for the Jewish people and for the Church the Torah (Law) of Sinai that defines the commitment of the people within the context of the covenant between God and Israel. The first reading of the feast is taken from the conclusion to the Book of Deuteronomy which tells about the death of Moses. In the words of the book: "Never since has there arisen a prophet in Israel like Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face" (Deuteronomy 34:10).

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Moses is a central figure in the New Testament too. On the feast, the reading is that of the story of the Transfiguration. Moses and Elijah appear alongside Jesus who is revealed to the three disciples transfigured, showing his victory over sin and death (cf. Matthew 17:1-9). In this revelation, Moses (like Elijah) comes to testify to the fulfillment of God's promises in the person of Jesus. However, it must be said too that Jesus emphasizes the centrality of the Law of Moses again and again, citing its commandments and sentences. At the beginning of his teaching in Galilee, he also explicitly says: "Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets; I have come not to abolish but to fulfill" (Matthew 5:17).

The place connected to the figure of Moses in the memory of the Church in the Holy Land is Mount Nebo which was the place from which Moses was able to gaze into the Land which he could not enter, before his death. There the principle liturgy of the feast takes place.